6 Lifestyle Factors and How they Impact Our Health

Updated: Dec 3, 2021

Introduction | 6 Lifestyle Factors | #1: Smoking | #2: Alcohol | #3: Sleep | #4: Stress | #5: Exercise | #6: Diet & Nutrition

an image of items relating to the lifestyle factors: running trainers, skipping rope, dumbbells and health food

The aim of this article is to provide you with an opportunity to complete a health and lifestyle questionnaire. By reading through and honestly answering the questions, and comparing the answers to the ‘health professional’s analysis, you will be able to identify areas of your lifestyle that (might) need improving.

So this is how the Lifestyle Analysis should work

Read through the questionnaire ensuring to answer each question as honestly and accurately as possible.

How this would normally work, say, between a health professional and their client, is, after the client has completed the questionnaire, the health professional would read it over making recommendations and suggestions.

The health professional would identify areas in the client’s lifestyle that could compromise their health and increase the risk of illness and disease. Not only would they identify pernicious lifestyle habits but also order them in a list of prioritised importance. That is, which lifestyle habit poses the greatest risk to health and ought to be tackled first.

If the health professional is worth their salt they would sit with the client and verbally walk them through their analysis.

Because we cannot, for obvious reasons, conduct this process in the manner described above, I have instead analysed the questionnaire based on how the ‘average’ (that is statistical average) person would answer the questions.

In addition, for those lifestyle questions that the average person would posit a positive answer – for example: Do you smoke? To which the average person would answer No – I have still explained how this lifestyle factor could negatively impact health. Why?

For the simple reason that I want this lifestyle analysis to be as inclusive as possible. And of course, statistically speaking, it stands to reason that, if enough people do conduct this questionnaire, one will inevitably be a smoker.

However, if you were to come across a question which you could answer positively – such as: Do you smoke? Yes/No . . . No – you would simply dismiss my analysis and proceed to the next question.

In a bid to facilitate user participation and make the process run more smoothly, I have indicated at the end of each question whether or not, based on your answer, you should read the accompanying analysis.

A quick word on the lifestyle questions

In my discussion of each lifestyle question, I have remained both broad and brief. The reason for this is twofold.

1) A comprehensive outline of but one lifestyle factor would require an extensive investigation which would easily consume thousands of words. I have purposely avoided this so as to better cater to the contemporary palate.

2) When analyzing a client’s diet I would normally pick it apart and, on slipping on my nutritionist specs, scrutinize every edible, meal, and morsel.

This approach, for a general lifestyle analysis, is of course not feasible. Thus the onus is on the reader to compare and contrast the lifestyle factors discussed to their own.

Also, I would advise the reader to further explore those lifestyle factors that were identified as needing improvement. A suggested reading list accompanies each factor.

Ok, I’ll shut up now. It’s over to you to complete the questionnaire. Just remember one thing: be honest!


Lifestyle Factor #1: Smoking

a man snapping a cigarette in half - this image is showing the importance of stopping smoking as part of a move towards a healthier lifestyle.

Do you smoke? Yes / No: Yes (if you answered Yes please read the analysis)

According to the NHS (2020) ‘Smoking is the biggest cause of preventable deaths in England, accounting for nearly 80,000 deaths each year. One in two smokers will die from a smoking-related disease.’

There’s more: ‘Every 15 cigarettes you smoke will cause a mutation in your body, mutations are how cancers start' (NHS - Smoke-Free).

By reducing your consumption of cigarettes, and eventually quitting, of course, you will significantly reduce your susceptibility to the plethora of smoking-related diseases.

Diseases associated with smoking

9 of the 10 known lung cancers
Cancer of the: mouth, throat, oesophagus, stomach, digestive tract and brain
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Hypertension – high blood pressure
Heart disease

Smoking has also been shown to adversely impact infertility and reproduction – men who smoke tend to have lower sperm counts – and blood circulation – men who smoke tend to experience fewer erections.

As a consequence of the toxic gunk that accumulates and coagulates in the body, which eventually finds its way to the circulatory system, the blood of a smoker is not only comparatively thicker than that of a non-smoker but also carries less oxygen. This is bad for a number of reasons. But the two most prominent are:

1: Thicker blood which increases your chances of clot formation
2: Increases your blood pressure and heart rate, making your heart work harder than normal

If, as a smoker, you are left unmoved after learning of these dire facts, findings and figures, you are clearly unreachable. Why you would so willingly subject your body to such disgusting pollution and poison and expose your health to so great a risk I could never understand. You are a psychological enigma.

However, now that you are informed, if ever you do succumb to one of the aforementioned diseases/conditions – and statistics indicate that you stand a very high chance – at least you won’t be able to say: But I didn’t know smoking was so bad for my health. Thus, when the time comes, ensure that you fall on your sword with dignity . . . and be so good as to give up your medical care to someone more deserving of it.

(On the bright side, until you do decide to dispense with the disease inflictors you’ll be contributing to the coffers of the tobacco barons, the government, and keeping many a health psychologist in pay. On their behalf: Thank You!)

If, as a smoker, you feel somewhat unnerved by the myriad ways smoking could shorten your life, and the prospect of dying 15 years prematurely keeps you up at night, as it rightly should, TAKE ACTION IMMEDIATELY!

Nowadays there is so much help available for people who want to quit the cancer sticks. You’ve just got to be bothered to seek out those support groups and use them.

To unburden you of one of the many barriers that are no doubt prohibiting you from taking action, I have included a number of links to smoking support groups. Start your journey to a healthier life today!

The following link will take you to the NHS’s Personal Quit Plan
Quit.org is charity dedicated to helping people QUIT!
Smokefree.gov is a governmental initiative to help people QUIT!
And then there’s Ash.org, a public charity striving to help people improve their health by staying QUIT!

Further reading

Health Psychology: Theory, Research and Practice

by David F. Marks (Author), Michael Murray (Author), Emee Vida Estacio

This fully revised and updated Fifth Edition takes a critical approach and places health psychology in a real-world context, enabling students to understand how public policy, theory and research can influence communities and individuals alike.


Lifestyle Factor #2: Alcohol Consumption

An image depicting multiple bottles of alcohol. This is supposed to illustrate the importance of reducing or quitting drinking alcohol as part of a healthy lifestyle.

Do you consume alcohol? Yes / No: Yes (if you answered Yes please read the analysis – though not before first calculating the number of units you are consuming)

If Yes, how much alcohol do you consume during the week? (Unit conversion: one pint of low strength beer = 2 units – large glass of red wine = 3 units – single small shot 25ml of a 40% proof spirit = 1 unit)

I consume between 3 to 4 alcoholic beverages per week. My tipple is red wine and one drink constitutes a full glass. Going off the conversion chart I am probably consuming about 12 units each week.

The dangers of alcohol consumption

‘According to Government statistics, more than 1.4 million people are dependent on alcohol in the UK. 33,000 people die each year due to alcohol-related incidents or associated health problems,’ (Alcoholics Anonymous 2020).

Alcohol, in any quantity, is extremely pernicious to health. According to Dr Greger ‘moderate drinking does appear to protect against heart disease, perhaps because of a blood-thinning effect, but even light drinking (less than one drink a day) has been found to increase cancer risk,’ (How Not to Die ).

Alcohol consumption contributes to 3 million deaths each year globally as well as to the disabilities and poor health of millions of people. ‘Overall, harmful use of alcohol is responsible for 5.1% of the global burden of disease,’ (WHO (2020)).

Furthermore, alcohol consumption is associated with fatty-liver disease, type 2 diabetes, and visceral/subcutaneous fat. Anyone who is serious about weight loss and health must look to reduce the amount of alcohol they consume.

Alcohol-related diseases

Cirrhosis of the liver ‘is scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by long-term liver damage.’ (NHS (2020))
Wet brain syndrome or ‘‘Wernicke’s encephalopathy’ is a condition that causes neurological symptoms as a result of biochemical lesions of the nervous system’ which can result in permanent damage to the brain leading to memory loss and impaired cognition (Dr Thomas (2020)).
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Digestive problems: alcohol can impede the body from absorbing vital nutrients – such as thiamine (B1)
Alcohol can also damage your pancreas. If you drink too much, it can lead to acute (short-lasting) or chronic (long-lasting) pancreatitis (BUPA (2020))
Chronic Depression
Impaired reproductive capacity – alcohol consumption reduces sperm count

In light of these facts – and there are many more besides – it is best to reduce alcohol consumption to zero units per week. Over the course of the next couple of weeks aim to reduce the number of units consumed. Do not replace alcohol with a non-alcoholic alternative as they contain lots of sugar and you would merely be replacing one unhealthy beverage for another.

Below I have included a number of links to support groups. Access them today and kick this nasty habit.

Alcoholics Anonymous, in their own words, ‘is a fellowship of men and women who share their experiences, strength and hope with each other that they may sole their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism.’ But the charity also provides advice on guidance on how to lower consumption and how to quit altogether.

The NHS provides a service that enables people to find support groups in their local area. Follow the link and get the support you need.

Alcohol Change is a charity dedicated to helping people find the right support for them.

Further Reading

Alcohol Explainedby William Porter

Alcohol Explained is the definitive, ground-breaking guide to alcohol and alcoholism. It explains how alcohol affects human beings on a chemical, physiological and psychological level, from those first drinks right up to chronic alcoholism. Alcoholism and problem drinking seems illogical to those on the outside, indeed it is equally perplexing for the alcoholic or problem drinker. This book provides a logical, easy-to-follow explanation of the phenomenon and detailed instructions on how to beat it.


Lifestyle Factor #3: Sleep

A cartoon image of a woman sleeping in a cloud. This picture is supposed to illustrate the importance of sleep as part of a healthy lifestyle.

Do you get on average between: 7 to 8 hours of good sleep? Yes / No (If No please read the analysis)

No, I do not get between 7 to 8 hours of good sleep. I’m lucky if I get 6 hours and the sleep I have tends to be broken and fractured.

The importance of sleep

The importance of sleep and how it impacts physiological and neurological systems are becoming more deeply understood. Sleep scientists (yes that’s a thing) around the world are studying the ways in which sleep both positively and negatively affects our lives. Their findings are a cause of great concern for those who are not getting enough sleep.

The focus of this analysis is centered on the negative effects and why it is imperative to implement a healthy sleeping regime.

Few people truly recognise just how important sleeping is. I myself often use to say that sleep is for the lazy and that I’ll catch up on those lost hours when I’m dead. Ironic as it is, and in my ignorance little did I know that, persistent sleep deprivation could hasten my ultimate demise.

But beyond potentially shortening your lifespan poor sleep hygiene, as it’s known, correlates strongly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and impaired physical performance (Ventino et al 2013).

In addition, the quality of sleep is an indicator of general well-being and irregular sleeping patterns have been shown to impair or diminish the quality of a person’s life. Poor sleep hygiene is associated with heightened states of anxiety, stress, and depression.

Other negative outcomes associated with poor sleep include

Impaired memory
Impaired learning capacity
Increases states of anxiety, stress and depression
Increases chances of developing obesity
Reduces the size of a males testicles thus adversely impacting on reproductive capability
Could increase susceptibility to Alzheimer’s
A mere one hour of sleep deprivation can significantly increase one’s risk of suffering a heart attack
Sleep loss has been shown to impair immune system function
Short sleep duration is linked to increase risk of cancer

So now that we know how detrimental sleep deprivation is to our health, two questions naturally follow:

Q1) How much sleep should I get
Q2) How do I get a good night’s sleep?

In answer to Q1, how much sleep we should get each night, the general consensus amongst sleep scientists is that 8 hours I optimal – but as this is unachievably specific aim for between 7 to 9 hours. Sleeping for fewer than 7 hours each night is considered as ‘short sleep’, which, if persistent, increases your chances of falling foul to the negative outcomes listed above.

But, as with all good things, we can get too much sleep. Sleeping for more than 9 hours constitutes as oversleep and comes with its own list of potential negative outcomes; such as stroke and, in women, breast cancer.

In response to Q2, I have compiled a list of advice from the top sleep scientists of how to improve your chances of getting a better night’s sleep. Remember, don’t expect instant results. As with anything worthwhile you have to persevere and be prepared to work at it.

Shh! I’m catching 40 winks: 7 ways to get a good night's sleep

1: Abstain from caffeinated or sugary drinks for a minimum of 6 hours before bedtime. Why? Cuz caffeine can continue to stimulate the brain for up to 6 hours after ingestion.

2. Avoid bright lights – including ‘screen time’ – for a good hour or two prior to tucking up. Bright light can adversely impact how the brain regulates sleep hormones and, so I read, can trigger wakey wakey time – something we want to avoid before fluffing up the pillow.

3. It is good practice to create an environment conducive to inducing a restive ‘sleepy’ state at least an hour before entering the Land of Nod. For example, let’s say you habitually climb into your coffin dead on 10 pm, at 9 pm you would ensure that all devices are turned off, lights turned down, maybe a bit of soft music playing in the background and you might begin reading a pleasant book – not a Stephen King slasher flick – or engage in a relaxing activity: Pilates, light Yoga, meditation.

4. Avoid strenuous physical activity at least 2 to 3 hours before boarding the sleep train. Exercise induces a heightened arousal state which may delay disembarkation.

5. Impose a strict zero-tolerance attitude on napping throughout the day. Yes, there is evidence out there in favor of napping; some studies have shown that it can boost mood and increase cognition. However, for light sleepers or people who struggle to 'get off', napping can impoverish the quality of a night's sleep.

6. Maintain a routine and rigidly stick to it. Apparently, according to sleep scientists, we can train ourselves to sleep not only better but more deeply. One of the best ways to do this is to establish a routine and avoid breaking it. Contrary to popular best sleeping practices advice, even if you are not tired you should still observe your routine.

7. Resist the temptation to hit snooze and don’t make a habit of lying in. Yes, it’s probably not going to hurt once a week – say as a Sunday morning treat – but sneaking in extra Zzzzzs can disrupt sleep cycles.

Follow the link and learn more on the importance of sleep from one of the world’s foremost sleep scientists.

Further Reading

Why We Sleep: The New Science of Sleep and Dreams by Matthew Walker

Sleep is one of the most important aspects of our life, health and longevity and yet it is increasingly neglected in twenty-first-century society, with devastating consequences: every major disease in the developed world - Alzheimer's, cancer, obesity, diabetes - has very strong causal links to deficient sleep.


Lifestyle Factor #4: Stress

A cartoon image depicting a man in a state of stress. This image heads the section that discusses the importance of stress reduction and stress management as part of a healthy lifestyle.

Do you suffer from stress on a regular basis (two or more times per week)? Y / N – Yes

If you answered Yes, rate the severity of stress against the 10 point scale below (1 being Zen Buddhist calm 10 being volcanic meltdown stressed)

1 . . . 2 . . . . 3 . . . 4 . . . 5 . . . 6 . . . 7 . . . 8 . . . 9 . . . 10

What are your primary stress triggers?

Primarily work as my job is atherosclerotic with bureaucracy and the organization expects far too much from its staff. We are always being saddled with unachievable expectations . . . and we are underappreciated. Other stressors include relationships and money matters.

The two faces of stress

We all know that there are two types of stress. Type 1: Acute – or short term: in a moment of absentmindedness you step into the road without looking, a car whizzes past whilst honking which sends your heart rate through the roof. But after giving yourself a good and much deserved dressing down you go about your merry way like nothing happened. After all, the crisis is now over so why dwell on it?

Type 2: Chronic stress

For months and months your boss has been saddling you with more and more work responsibilities and you’re feeling overwhelmed and you’ve got knots in your stomach and you can’t sleep and you’re constantly anxious and worried and, and . . . Yep, this is chronic stress and it’s the stuff that’ll make you ill and, if not treated, potentially prematurely cut your life short.

For obvious reasons, we’ll be focusing our attention on the second type of stress.

The dangers of chronic stress

Chronic levels of stress has shown to be detrimental to many areas of the body with links to some of the biggest health concerns including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mental health issues.

Harris et al 2017; Song et al 2019; Bullmore, 2018

The silent killer kills many thousands of people each year. And in one way or another stress negatively impacts the lives of millions of people every day. It has been shown to exacerbate the severity of anxiety, depression and other mental health disorders. Some studies have shown that stress can even trigger mental health episodes in people who before had not exhibited any underlying symptoms.

Stress has also been linked to physical disorders and it is estimated that ‘over 80 percent of visits to the doctor’s office in the developed world are for stress-related disorders’ (Dr Siegel, Psy.D 2014).

But though there is an edifice of research demonstrating the detrimental impact stress has on human health, few people recognise just how pernicious stress actually is and it is not taken nearly as seriously as it ought to be.

In his book, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, Robert M. Sapolsky, who is Stanford professor of biology and neurology and foremost researcher into the impacts of stress on health, talks about how stress impairs immune function thus increasing our susceptibility to illness and disease – such as cancer.

States of chronic – or persistent – stress have been shown to inhibit digestion, reproduction, ovulation and the general growth and repair of tissue (Sapolsky 1994). This goes some way to account for why people suffering from chronic stress are more likely to get ill and develop disease – for their bodies, as Sapolsky colorfully puts it, ‘halts long-term, expensive building projects’ like manufacturing antibodies whose job it is to fight, amongst other things, tumour cells.

In addition, stress is believed to be linked to a range of physical illnesses which includes

Infectious illness (such as influenza)
Cardiovascular disease
Rheumatoid arthritis

(Curtis 2000)

Emerging research is showing how stress can exert a destructive influence at both a cellular and neurological level. For example, the stressed brain halts highly important ‘building projects’ such as birthing new neurons – called neurogenesis – whilst also impairing hippocampal function; the hippocampus ‘is a small, seahorse-shaped structure that store your conscious memories in an organized way,’ (Greenberg 2016).

The result? Over protracted periods this neurological damage can result in a weakening of neural networks leading to diminished memory recall and, in the most severe cases, early onset of cognitive decline. The brain that weathers a lot of stress wears quicker.

Identifying the signs and symptoms of stress

Before stress can be dealt with it must first be identified. The reason why it is called the silent killer is that, unlike a physical ailment, such as the flu, or a sheered femur, which exhibits salient symptoms, stress can bubble away under the surface undetected for years.

People, in the main, just aren’t adequately educated on how to identify the signs and symptoms of stress. This must change if we hope to avoid the pernicious effects of stress.

Below you’ll find an extensive list of the signs and symptoms commonly associated with chronic stress:


headaches or dizziness
muscle tension or pain
stomach problems
chest pain or a faster heartbeat
loss of libido


difficulty concentrating
struggling to make decisions
feeling overwhelmed
constantly worrying
being forgetful


being irritable and snappy
sleeping too much or too little
eating too much or too little
avoiding certain places or people
drinking or smoking more

(NHS 2020)

Methods of managing stress

"The greatest weapon against stress is our ability to choose one thought over another."

William James

To identify in ourselves if we might be suffering from stress we must either know our triggers or regularly conduct a self-examination. This may come across as a bit preposterous I know but unless it is brought to our attention, either through illness or a breakdown, then the fact that you are stressed might simply go unnoticed.

If you know your stress triggers then you can work to engineer your environment to reduce or remove them.

But let’s imagine that you are not aware of your triggers and that, after conducting a self-examination, you’ve realised that you are in fact exhibiting a number of the signs and symptoms of stress. How do you go about reducing the stress response and restoring your inner harmony?

4 ways to manage stress

Exercise is a great stress-buster

Exercise has been shown to disperse the dark forces of stress like a ray of bright monochromic light. When we get a rigorous sweat-on the body releases ‘feel good’ chemicals – endorphins and whatnot – which, well, make us feel good. This, for a time, can turn the tide of stress. To keep stress at bay it might be worth implementing the daily habit of an early morning 30-minute jog or gym circuit. This way you’ll not only reduce stress but also reap the many health rewards associated with exercise.

Related: Learn how to use exercise to reduce stress


Yoga, much for the same reason as exercise, demonstrably disposes of the demonic forces of stress. Stretching and slow body control movements also release ‘feel good’ chemicals. In addition, Yoga has been shown to enhance proprioception – body awareness. By enhancing body awareness we will sharpen our sensitivity to detecting the signs and symptoms of the silent killer. (Challenge yourself to 30 days of Yoga.)

Find time for yourself

Setting aside some time for self-care. This sounds a bit pink and fluffy I agree but it is massively important. Self-care is engaging in activities or pursuits that you love to do. By way of example, one of my self-care activities is playing my guitar. Every morning and evening I’ll sequester myself in a cloistered cell and strum the sorrows of the world away. For me an hour on the guitar never fails to banish stress. When you identify your self-care activity of choice you must ensure to set aside at least 30-minutes (preferably an hour) each and every day where you can indulge without the worry of being disturbed.

Work less, live more

Work/life balance. Work is often identified as the most prevalent stress-inducing trigger. Because of the Western world’s unhealthy obsession with productive output, things are not going to change any time soon and the workplace will continue to make peoples’ lives a misery. However, you can do something about it. In fact, you absolutely must take action because it’s highly unlikely that your employer will. By establishing a healthy work/life balance, where work ends and life begins, you can enjoy the undisturbed downtime you deserve, free from the incessant responsibilities of the job. But you must be strict when implementing the boundaries and you must never allow your employer to encroach on your life outside of work: give the bastards an inch and they’ll take a mile!

"Don’t get so busy making a living that you forget to make a life."

Dolly Parton

If you do find yourself suffering from chronic stress and the methods outlined above don’t seem to help, it is imperative that you seek professional support: IMMEDIATELY! By following the link you will be able to find the support you need.

Further Reading

Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers Robert M. Sapolsky

Now in a third edition, Robert M. Sapolsky's acclaimed and successful Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers features new chapters on how stress affects sleep and addiction, as well as new insights into anxiety and personality disorder and the impact of spirituality on managing stress. As Sapolsky explains, most of us do not lie awake at night worrying about whether we have leprosy or malaria. Instead, the diseases we fear - and the ones that plague us now - are illnesses brought on by the slow accumulation of damage, such as heart disease and cancer.


Lifestyle Factor #5: Exercise

A collage of the components of fitness: cardiovascular, muscular strength, strength, flexibility. This heads the lifestyle factor exercise.

Do you participate in regular exercise? Yes/No: No (If No please read the analysis)

Even when all is known, the care of a man is not yet complete, because eating alone will not keep a man well; he must also take exercise. For food and exercise, while possessing opposite qualities, yet work together to produce health.


The benefits of exercise

The health benefits exercise confers are widely understood and recognised. Few people today are ignorant to the fact that exercise is not only extremely good for us but can reduce our chances of developing illness and disease.

But exercise is even better than we previously thought.

Amazingly, contemporary research is showing that exercise can actually be weaponised and used to fight some of the worst diseases. In 2009 an Australian research team published a paper showing the positive effects exercise exerts in the fight against cancer. The research demonstrated that exercise, in conjunction with established treatment methods, can positively support cancer patients irrespective of what stage they are at in their treatment.

Since the publication of that seminal 2009 paper, the benefits accrued through supplementing exercise during cancer treatment have been extensively reviewed.

A recent publication reported that of 140 such studies 75% showed ‘statistically significant and clinically relevant benefit through exercise on a range of treatment-related side effects, physical, functional, and psychosocial outcomes,’ (Maloney, et al. 2018).

"Regular physical exercise affords protection against stroke."

Curtis (2000)

The health benefits associated with regular exercise

Weight control
Improved body composition
Protection against coronary heart disease (CHD)
Improved cardio-respiratory performance
Protection against stroke
Improved immune function
Decreased depression
Helps reduce anxiety
Mitigates chronic stress
Promotes a positive attitude
Enforces self-efficacy
Improves self-confidence and self body image

Wow! What a singularly impressive list of health benefits. Makes me want to slip on a pair of sneeks and go out for a five-mile run followed by a set of 500 kettlebell swings. To think, each mile, each set of ten could be boosting my immune system and protecting me against heart disease!

And, what’s more, those health benefits are there for the taking – they could be yours. All you’ve got to do is establish a regular exercise routine that includes a mixture of the primary components of fitness: cardiovascular, strength, muscular endurance and flexibility.

Now that we have covered the theoretical side of exercise we must turn our attention to the practical. In the following section, you are going to learn how to implement and organize an exercise regime.

Establishing an exercise regime

If you currently do no exercise, or your participation is at best sporadic, then you must establish a consistent regime that incorporates a varied mix of physical activities. To get you on your way I have explained an infallible method of establishing a fitness regime. From here all that’s left for you to do is faithfully participate.

Create an Exercise Programme

Creating an exercise programme is relatively straightforward – especially for someone who is just engaging in exercise for general fitness and health. To create your programme you merely need either a calendar or grid/table and a pen (if you want to be fancy you can word-process the programme and print it off).

Now, let’s say you’re using a calendar. Simply plot each day’s exercise activity – including session duration and type of exercise – for a minimum of 2 months. See table below.

A table showing an example of an exercise programme. The exercise regime provides you with an overview of the different exercise sessions that you could do as part of an exercise programme.

(Ensure, prior to taking part in any exercise activity, to spend a minimum of 10 minutes warm-up – for advice on best warm-up practices follow the link.)

Once you’ve organised your first week you can repeat for the following seven – ensuring to gradually increase the duration of each training session; each day of the final week should be almost double that of the first.

Of course, you don’t have to continue creating a programme indefinitely. This is a method of cultivating the habit of participating in daily exercise. After a couple of months of following a training programme you should by then be thoroughly indoctrinated. At this point, you can dispense with the calendar and just do whatever comes into your head.

I’m a professional personal trainer and health and well-being coach and I don’t follow a programme – never have, never will. I usually decide the day before (or in the morning) what exercise I’m going to take part in. When you no longer need the dictates of a programme to determine your daily training sessions you can enjoy concocting them on the fly.

However, if, after departing from your programme, you feel that you are starting to slip and slide back into old habits, just get that calendar out again.


Lifestyle Factor #6: Diet

A woman standing in front of table full of fruits and vegetables. She is holding a tape measure around her waist. This image heads up the lifestyle factor of diet. This section argues that diet and nutrition are extremely important aspects of a healthy lifestyle.

Do you consider your diet to be healthy? Yes/No: No (if no please read the analysis)

"He who does not know food, how can he understand the diseases of man?"

Hippocrates, the father of medicine (460 – 375 B.C.)

The contemporary diet transgresses a number of well-established and scientifically supported principles of what constitutes healthy eating.

For example, animal protein (including fish and dairy) is synonymous with excessive subcutaneous and visceral body fat. Furthermore, many contemporary diseases – type 2 diabetes, obesity, CHD, and cancer – are believed to be caused by an omnivorous diet; the risk rate increases when the quantity of animal protein consumed increases.

For an insight into the detriments of animal protein on health consider the following videos:

Why is the Science of Nutrition Ignored in Medicine? - T. Colin Campbell
I Love Nutritional Science - Dr. Joel Fuhrman

Though the argument is by no means settled, scientific evidence is stacking up heavily in favour of a plant-based diet being best for human health. If the concept is new to you a plant-based diet is a diet consisting primarily of vegetables and fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Basically, a vegan diet – but it seems as though the proponents of the plant-based diet movement don’t want it labeled ‘vegan’ due to the negative connotations surrounding the word: viz. emaciated tree-hugging hemp-wearing hippies with flowers in their hair.

"Diet is the number-one cause of premature death and the number one cause of disability."

Michael Greger

So, if you regularly consume animal protein, but wish to pursue healthier dietary practices, then you must look to cut down on the amount of meat you consume. Not only meat but dairy, poultry, and fish.

In conjunction with cutting out animal protein simultaneously increase the number of vegetables and fruits you consume on a daily basis. The government keeps telling us to eat 5 pieces of fruit and veg a day. But they’re well wrong – as per usual.

According to nutritional scientists, we should be aiming for 10 to 12! pieces of veg and fruit (I’ve put veg first because they should take priority over fruit for the fact that they contain more vitamins/minerals and far less sugar: go 8 pieces of veg to 2/4 pieces of fruit).

A plant based diet food pyramid. The pyramid shows a whole-food plant-based diet.

What is my prescription for good health? In short, it is about the multiple health benefits of consuming plant-based foods.

T. Colin Campbell PhD author of The China Study


Snacking is also recognised as an enemy of health – of course, that is dependent on the type of snack foods being consumed. If snacks are processed, from a packet, laden with fat and/or sugar, they will – over time – exert a deleterious effect on health and contribute to the accumulation of unwanted body fat.

Ultimately, irrespective of what foods are being snacked on, it is always best to keep snacking to a minimum. The body needs far fewer calories than we realise; actually, it is the surfeit of calories that is currently being linked to the slew of dietary diseases currently plaguing the west – in short, we’re eating far more than we need. Two to three healthy meals a day will provide us with all the nutrients and energy we need to sustain daily activity.

Processed food

We all know processed foods are bad for our health. And we all know that not only do processed foods pollute our bodies but that they also contribute to weight gain and obesity. The reason why they are so detrimental to our health is that processed foods are both energy-dense and addictive.

It’s no secret that food industries have engineered their toxic products to manipulate the ‘pleasure centres’ within our brains, ‘the so called dopamine reward system,’ (Greger 2017).

This, of course, is a disastrous combination: a plentiful supply of addictive energy-laden food. Is it any wonder then that the fattest nations consume the most processed food?

It is for this reason why, if you are serious about improving your health, you must drastically reduce your consumption of processed foods and adopt clean eating principles.

Fifteen thousand years ago our ancestors regularly ingested 150 ingredients in a week. Most people nowadays consume fewer than twenty separate food items and many, if not most, of these are artificially refined. Most processed food products come depressingly from just four main ingredients: corn, soy, wheat or meat.

Spector (2015)

Further Reading

How Not to DieMichael Greger, MD

How Not to Diet is a treasure trove of buried data and cutting-edge dietary research that Dr Michael Greger has translated into accessible, actionable advice with exciting tools and tricks that will help you to safely lose weight and eliminate unwanted body fat – for good.


To Conclude

We should make the preservation of our personal health our chief priority and guiding objective. For not only is health a one-time deal but it acts as a firm foundation from which we can better meet the demands of life: a weak foundation will likely result in, if not outright collapse, physical infirmity, and structural instability.

By better understanding the six factors outlined above, how they affect our health both positively and negatively, we can look to shape our lifestyle so as to strengthen and fortify health as opposed to weakening and deteriorating it. Thus, in summary:

  • Aim to cut down alcohol consumption with the view of removing it from your diet completely. Alcohol in any amount is detrimental to health and jeopardises longevity and future health. We should not forget that it is a drug that boasts the highest addiction rates. Also, and finally, alcohol causes more premature deaths than ALL banned substances (class A, B, and C drugs) combined (The Economist, 2019).

  • Stress is called the silent killer. The damaging effects of stress on health are only really starting to be understood (see Sapolsky’s Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers). From the increase of glucocorticoids to the wearing of the telomeres, there is no doubt about it: stress shortens our life span. Also, it can place an intolerable burden on experiential existence. The first step to reducing or removing stress is to identify the triggers and then introduce interventions that help mitigate the effects of stress.

  • In the west we are still yet to fully awaken to the importance sleep plays in preserving health. But the sleep scientists at the vanguard of research are doing their damndest to rouse us from our ignorant slumber. So far they have convincingly shown sleep could well be one of the most important factors affecting physical and mental health both in the short and long term. And though the science is complicated, their message is simple: strive to improve the quality and duration of your sleep.

  • The importance of the role exercise plays in the preservation of health cannot be overstated. Today there is literally a wealth of research showing how exercise decreases disease susceptibility whilst enhancing longevity and overall life enjoyment. It is for this reason why it is one of the primary pillars that support a healthy lifestyle. However, we must remember that exercise is not a panacea to unhealthy living in other areas and that it makes up only about 10% of the health whole (Greger 2017). What is most important is the foods we eat on a daily basis.

  • Following on from the previous paragraph, our diet plays by far the largest role in supporting health. Contemporary research, though incomplete and prone to contradiction, indicates that the best diet for human health is one closely aligned with the principles of a plant-based diet which, at its simplicity, requires that we consume vegetables, fruits, healthy fats (nuts, seeds, avocados, mono/poly-unsaturated fats: olive/hemp oil) and whole grains whilst decreasing all animal proteins, refined carbohydrates, and processed foods. It’s what we put in our mouths that will make the biggest difference to our health.

Now, go forth and be healthy!


In this textbox it says: (As we are very interested in user feedback at Hungry4Fitness, I would be very grateful if you could take a few seconds out of your day to leave a comment. Thanks in advance!)  Blog Author Adam Priest, former Royal Marines Commando, is a personal trainer, lecturer, boxing and Thai boxing enthusiast.


Curtis. A. (2000) Healthy Psychology. Routaledge. USA.

Greger, M. Stone, G (2017) How Not to Die. USA. Macmillan.

Klein. N (2014). This Changes Everything. United States. Penguin.

Marks. F, D. Murray. M., Estacio. E. V (2018) Health Psychology: Theory, Research and Practice (Fifth Edition). SAGE Publications Ltd. UK.

Spector, T. (2015) The Diet Myth. London. W&N publication.

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